We study the homogenization and singular perturbation of the
wave equation in a periodic media for long times of the order
of the inverse of the period. We consider inital data that are
Bloch wave packets, i.e., that are the product of a fast
oscillating Bloch wave and of a smooth envelope function.
We prove that the solution is approximately equal to two waves
propagating in opposite directions at a high group velocity with
envelope functions which obey a Schr"odinger type equation.
Our analysis extends the usual WKB approximation by adding a
dispersive, or diffractive, effect due to the non uniformity
of the group velocity which yields the dispersion tensor of
the homogenized Schr"odinger equation. This is a joint work
with M. Palombaro and J. Rauch.